by Courtenay Young

This article was originally written as a basis for understanding the whole process of establishing Body-Psychotherapy as a major branch of psychotherapy in Europe (as a “mainstream”) and the intricate involvements with the EAP; their Training Standards Committee; NUOCs, EWOCs, the ECP, the TAC and other strange beasts and alphabets; and as a guide to some of the other pages on this website. It was written in July 1999 after the 1999 Annual General Meeting of the EAP in Vienna, and later updated in February 2004.

Contents: (click on an underlined chapter if you want to jump to that topic)

    * 1. EAP and the establishment of "Scientific Validity"
    * 2. The situation in Europe and in various countries
    * 3. Mainstreams and Modalities
    * 4. The FORUM for Body-Psychotherapy Organisations
    * 5. Scientific Validation & Recognition
    * 6. Next Steps and Conclusions

Disclaimer: Some of the following statements are not ones that I necessarily personally uphold. I am describing or trying to describe the situation that exists, as best I can and as I see it, rather than supporting it, condoning it, or condemning it. However it is also a personal view and I take full responsibility for that. Return to Home Page

Chapter 1: EAP and the establishment of "scientific validity"

The European Association of Psychotherapy (EAP) currently consists of about 160 organisations from about 40 countries as members and about 380 individual members, having awarded about 5,000 European Certificate(s) of Psychotherapy, ECPs  and thus representing a total of between 60,000 & 75,000 European psychotherapists.

The organisations fall largely into 2 categories: National Umbrella Organisations (NUOs) or (where a national organisation does not exist; National Delegates representing that country]; and European Wide Organisations (EWOs), largely representing a type (mainstream or modality) of psychotherapy.

Countries that are currently represented in the EAP (either by a NUO or by a National Delegate) are Albania, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia and others. (It is perhaps interesting to note the absence of Latvia, Liechtenstein, and Portugal.)

Psychotherapies (modalities or mainstreams) that are currently represented in the EAP are the European Association of Biosynthesis, the European Association of Body-Psychotherapy, the European Association of Gestalt Therapy, the European Association of Integrative Psychotherapy, the European Association for Logotherapy and Existential Analysis, the European Association for NeuroLinguistic Psychotherapy, the European Association for Psycho-Organic Analysis, the European Association for Transactional Analysis, the European Family Therapy Association, the European Federation for Bioenergetic Analysis-Psychotherapy, the European Federation of the Centres of Positive Psychotherapy, the European Group Analytical Training Institutions Network, the European Society for Communicative Psychotherapy, the European Society of Hypnosis, the International Association of Somatotherapy, the International Clearing Association, the International Federation of Gestalt Training Organisations, Sophia University of Rome & the Euro pean Association of Sophia Analysis, and the European Federation for Psychosynthesis Psychotherapy. (It is perhaps interesting to note the absence of the Freudians, the Jungians, the Kleinians, Lacanians, etc. (ie the European associations for psychoanalysis) and also the Behaviourists). Criticism has been directed towards the EAP on this point, and so far only a little effort has been visible in attracting these types of organisation.
The EAP bases its main philosophy on the (self-determined) 1990 Strasbourg
Declaration of Psychotherapy. Here it is:

1. Psychotherapy is an independent scientific disciline, the practice of which represents and independent and free profession.    
2. Training in psychotherapy takes place at an advanced, qualified and scientific level.    
3. The multiplicity of psychotherapeutic methods is assured and guaranteed.    
4. A full psychotherapeutic training covers theory, self-experience, and practice under supervision. Adequate knowledge of various psychotherapeutic processes is acquired.    
5. Access to training is through various preliminary qualifications, in particular human and social sciences.

You will notice the significant words about "science". These are largely at the insistence of the Austrian representatives, as the psychotherapy law on psychotherapy in Austria requires the "scientific validity" of any particular method to be established. However the main push of the EAP over the last four years is to hammer out an agreement about a European Certificate for Psychotherapy (ECP). This Certificate is eventually to act as a "passport" in psychotherapy between countries, irrespective of modality or method.

Countries outside the EU are becoming increasingly interested in this ‘passport’ as it is the first time a 'professional' standard has been set for psychotherapy training within Europe. It is also fair to say that there is and has been opposition from “other” professions towardds the establishment and official recognition of these standards.

The standard set is the same for any professional training (doctors, dentists, engineers, architects, etc.) in that entry to specialised training is at "postgraduate level or the equivalent" which means that after leaving school at 17 or 18 a person must do a minimum of 7 years study (3 years to first degree level, and then four years of further postgraduate training) before they can qualify as a “professional”. It is this four years of specialist training in psychotherapy that the ECP is mainly concerned with.

A little more background. I mentioned earlier that there were two main types of organisation. For obvious reasons, it is easier for the NUO's to administer the situation in any particular country. Therefore they have a central role in putting people on to the Register of the ECP. However, the NUO in a particular country might know nothing about a particular type of psychotherapy and whether the training school in that country was recognised on a European wide level, or not.  So the role of the EWOs is to act as a quality cross-check for the various training schools in a particular modality and to help put pressure on countries where there might be a refusal to recognise a particular type of psychotherapy (viz. Body-Psychotherapy in Austria.)
Once an NUO has been accepted as the most representative body for psychotherapy in country, it is awarded the National Awarding Organisation (NAO) status for that country: and once a EWO is acknowledged as the most representative body for that type of psychotherapy, it is awarded the European Wide Accredition Organisation, EWAO, status.

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Chapter 2: The situation in Europe and in various countries

I have mentioned Austria earlier. Currently the Austrian Ministry of Health recognises about 12 different psychotherapies as "scientific". Body Psychotherapy is currently not one of these. The 'gossip' is that one of the original advisors to the Ministry of Health was particularly biased against Body Psychotherapy (because of the involvement of a member of his family in a particular form of B-P). Hence the 'ban'. However more on this later….

The other main reason within the EAP for establishing the "scientificity" of psychotherapy is to challenge the strong psychologist and psychiatrist lobby in Europe. Essentially the " field " of  psychotherapy – as an activity, as a profession - is being carved up between three (or more) professions now, rather than one or two. This is threatening,especially to the more established professions. In some countries the "psychotherapy pie" can be a very lucrative one with National Health insurance payments going to the "recognised" psychotherapists, be they clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, or these new interlopers calling themselves "psychotherapists"., so there is professional competition for these resources. Furthermore, in some countries, the national association of psychologists (note: psychologists), have felt so threatened that they have banned anybody who supports the EAP’s Strasbourg Declaration and, in France especially, about 120 psychologists were so expelled from their national association for this reason (1999).

The professional situation also changes quite radically.  A previously drafted law (in Austria) put psychotherapy well within the medical profession: a new European law recognises the input from Non-Governmental Organisations, NGOs, and is obliged to consult about any further changes. Recently in France (2004), after a lot of lobbying by EAP members, the Senate voted a new text that affirmed the title of psychotherapist, “for professionals incscribed on the national register of psychotherapists” (new text)taking it away from being a “medical tool” reserved for doctors, psychiatrists and certain psychologists (old text).  Also in 2004, the European parliament voted on “recognition of professional qualifications” mentioning the education of psychotherapists and minimal requirements for training of psychotherapists.  This is the first time psychotherapists have been mentioned specifically as an independent profession in the European Parliament., which is very significant.

All tihis activity is opening out the debate on psychotherapy as a profession, especially in 2004 with the EU expansion from about 15 countries to about 26 countries, comprising one of the largest trading blocks in the world.

Whilst the Austrian psychotherapy situation is still restrictive and we have not yet got Body-Psychotherapy properly recognised, positive steps are being made.  The situation is still slightly more favorable than the Italian, German, or Dutch situation All of these countries have laws or regulations about psychotherapy now. In Italy, there are two National Umbrella Organisations, which EAP is 'persuading' to amalgamate into one. One of them is all the psychologists and psychiatrists and the 'recognised' psychotherapists. It is quite small. The other, much larger, has all the other psychotherapists. The good news is that five schools of Body-Psychotherapy have been recognised by the ‘official’ ministry, and (whilst you have to train as a psychologist) you can do this within Body-Psychotherapy.

In Germany they ratified a 10 year old law in 1999 which was in favour of the psychologists and psychiatrists. However a number of Body-Psychotherapists also were accepted and persistence by the DGK with the EAP National organisation and with local health committees etc. means that Body-Psychotherapy progresses. Similarly in Holland, there is good news and bad news. The official system doesn’t yet recognise Body-Psychotherapy, and schools have had difficulty getting new entrants, but already qualified Body-Psychotherapists are becoming recognised and established and getting the ECP.  

This then is a quick snapshot of the situation in Europe. What is helpful to Body Psychotherapists in this overall perspective is that in the UK, and in Switzerland, Body Psychotherapy has been accepted semi-officially. In other countries it exists in an unregulated way along with many other types of psychotherapy.

Whilst this may not sound very hopeful, there are a few rainbows on the horizon. One is that the actual awarding of the ECP to about 3,000 psychotherapists, mainly in Austria, Germany, France and the Ukraine, but with lists being actively prepared in other countries as well.  Check out the EAP website:   This is beginning to carry some weight.

Another positive step is that the officials in the European Union and in the Council of Ministers are becoming more familiar with the EAP and it's structures. There was a Vienna Declaration in July 1996 to all world governements and a Declaration of Rights to Psychotherapy in Paris in June 1988. There was a very successful meeting in Strasbourg in April 1999 and the EAP has since been awarded NGO (Non Governmental Organisation) status.

Work is also being done on a charter for psychotherapists falling within the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental freedoms and the European Social Charter. The former is European law and thus complying with it gives a certain status. The Social Charter can help as breaches of it, if upheld in European courts, put pressure on governments to change legislation. At some point an interpretation of the Charter in relation to psychotherapy may be established by a legal precedent.

The ultimate professional sanction might eventually be for the European Parliament to create a "sectional directive" about psychotherapy. This would be binding on all EU countries. However this would need the agreement of about 8 (out of 15 countries or 13 out of 25) and is almost unchangeable and irrevocable. No-one really wants to go down this road.

Another route that no-body is really thinking about yet, is to legally challenge some of the more restrictive situations where competent and practising psychotherapists are denied opportunities to work because of a new law.  This could be challengable in a European court under the Human Rights convention.  It would take a long time and a lot of money, but the right case could set an irrevocable precedent.  We shall see.

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Chapter 3: Mainstreams and Modalities

I have also mentioned before the topics of "mainstreams" and "modalities". David Boadella has written a paper on this point already for the EAP, and I will extract elements from this to try to explain this here.
In total there are at least 50 different modalities or training methods in psychotherapy. Many of these have been recognised by one or more psychotherapy umbrella organisations. Some of these modalities can be grouped together into mainstreams. However this should be done voluntarily, rather than forced. Maslow describes "four forces of psychotherapy": psychodynamic; behavioural cognitive; humanistic-existential; transpersonal. Beyond this point it gets confusing and quite politically biased. Various countries recognise different mainstreams: the German psychotherapy law recognises only "force one" and "force two"; the Swiss state recognises the first three and one more: "Systemic", and the Swiss Charta recognises six; and includes "Body Psychotherapy" and "integrative psychotherapy".

Nominally the EAP currently recognises 11 mainstreams in psychotherapy: Psychodynamic (including Jungian); Behavioural Cognitive; Systemic & Family; Humanistic (inc. Gestalt & Transactional Analysis); Body Psychotherapy; Hypnotherapy & Imaginal; Integrative; Existential Psychotherapy (inc. logotherapy, daseinanalyse, etc.; Expressive Psychotherapy (psychodrama, movement psychotherapy, dance psychotherapy etc.); Transpersonal; and Experiential Psychotherapy.

There is a pragmatic test that a mainstream should contain at least two, and probably several, different types, methods or ‘modalities’ of psychotherapy. There are also at least 2 special categories generally recognised as needing substantively different training aspects: these are "child psychotherapy" and "group psychotherapy".  They exist somewhat outside of this mainstream -modality debate. The political component comes in as soon as you start to group psychotherapies together (into mainstreams) and then restrict the number of votes available in associations like the UKCP or the EAP. Arguments come forward that “Jungian is not psychodynamic”; that “Gestalt is more of a mainstream”; that “the traditional psychotherapies are getting swamped and outvoted by all this splitting off “and that “the new psychotherapies are not properly established and shouldn't have the same status”, etc. Maybe the numbers of people on the Register will determine future voting patterns. However again it is significant to note th at the EAP consists largely of psychotherapies outside of the two "first forces".  The more traditional or well-established psychotherapies have yet to fully engage with the EAP.

A modality is usually a branch of a particular type of psychotherapy, often started by some charismatic or creative individual (e.g. rational emotive therapy, by Albert Ellis, a form of behavioural-cognitive). They tend to be centered in a training school or schools, which may operate across Europe, or may be confined to just one or two countries. They tend to be less well known to people outside of their particular "mainstream".

One problem arises when one considers something like Integrative Psychotherapy. The implication is that this is a meta-system of two or more types or methods of psychotherapy, which have been 'integrated' together effectively and created a different meta-structure. There are now at least 25 established variants of this. They may conveniently be lumped into one catch-all "mainstream" but may have nothing to do really and practically with any other people in that mainstream, and may relate much closer to another mainstream - from which they emerged or towards which they are integrating. (e.g. Paul Boyesen's Psycho-Organic Analysis is seen by many to be a form of Body Psychotherapy, but Paul feels it is much closer to psychoanalysis, despite the fact that many psychoanalysts could feel very differently. The EAP will surely continue this debate about mainstreams and modalities for a good while yet.

However the last word which has to be said on this topic is that one of the arguments about EABP getting EWAO - European Wide Accrediting Organisation - status was because of this conflict.  EABP represents much more than a method - it is an accrediting for a mainstream. For these reasons there was some confusion in the minds of the assessors whether the acceptance of EABP's answers about the scientific validity of Body Psychotherapy gave an effective carte blanche to the acceptance of the scientific validity of every modality within Body Psychotherapy.  This would effectively turn EABP into a mini-EAP. So the compromise position is that EABP represents the “mainstream” of Body-Psychotherapy and each “modality” within Body-psychotherapy has to apply for scientific validity status of its method.  About seven modalities have done this now through EABP.

We needed to get the scientific validity of Body Psychotherapy clearly established so as to counter the situation in Austria, Italy, Holland & Germany particularly. This has been a major step. EABP members can get the ECP now applying through their National Awarding Organisation (NAO) and having their application counter—signed by EABP as the EWAO.  Training organisations in the scientifically validated modalities will be able to award their trainees the ECP in due course.

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Chapter 4: The FORUM for Body Psychotherapy Organisations

The FORUM of Body Psychotherapy Organisations (for fuller description, click here) was set up after the 1997 Pamhagen EABP General Assembly at which Organisational Membership of EABP was accepted. There are three types of organisation accepted as Members of EABP (for criteria, click here and application form, click here)  These are: (1) Training Schools in Body Psychotherapy; (2) Professional Associations of established Body Psychotherapists in a modality or in a particular geographical area; (3) European institutions or institutes representing a branch of Body Psychotherapy, usually with their own accreditation systems.

There are currently about 30 different organisations (for details, click here) and they represent or have trained or currently have in training a total of over 5,000 – 6,000 Body Psychotherapists.

It was decided to set up a system of accreditation for Body Psychotherapy Training Schools according to the EABP Training Standards, which had been written to fit the EAP criteria, and thus enable Body Psychotherapists at some point to get the ECP. The system of accreditation is described in the pages about Self-Assessment and Mutual Recognition (click here). Once the schools are EABP Organisational Members, they can join The FORUM.  For accreditation, there is a Self-Assessment form to fill out answering in-depth details about the organisation and its training school in relation to the EABP Training Standards (click here). Then representatives of two FORUM organisations will visit the training school and write a substantial report. This is the “mutual recognition” part of the process. These reports and the Self-Assessment form all go back to the next meeting of the FORUM and are voted on. This is the model for the EABP Accreditation process and it was accepted by the 1999 General Assembly, which mandates The FORUM the power to accredit training schools according to that process. The FORUM has become the "second leg" of EABP. There is a diagram showing the relationships of the various bodies within EABP (click here).

The final piece of the jigsaw puzzle for members of The FORUM is that EABP cannot put their people forward for the ECP until the scientific validity of their particular modality has been properly accepted by the EAP (see above). Various training schools and centres have answered the set of the EAP's 15 questions, and the answers of EABP about the scientific validity of Body-Psychotherapy in general, and have written their particular answers to these 15 questions. EABP has acted as a conduit or a channel for these modalities and six modalities have now gone through this process:  Hakomi, Unitive Psychotherapy, Biodynamic Psychotherapy, Bodynamics, Emotional ReIntegration and Character-Analytic Vegetotherapy. Biosynthesis, Bioenergetics & Psycho-Organic Analysis (not a Body-Psychotherapy ?) have also joined EAP independently and applied to be an EWAO themselves, which means that the scientific validity of these methods has also been validated.

The EAP has just formed a Training & Accreditation Committee (TAC_, to oversee a process for accreediting European Training Schools which is almost identical to the above process.  We have fought very hard for the principle of subsidiarity, which should mean that Body-Psychotherapy schools accredited by The FORUM do not have to go through this all again with the EAP.  We shall see.  Details of the EAP's process can be downloaded from their website:

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Chapter 5: Scientific Validation and Recognition

Much has been written on this already and you would need to look at other pages on this website (click here) for further details. However what is significant is that despite some technical & political objections of the assessors, there was no criticism of the scientific validity of Body-Psychotherapy. The experience was exhilarating and involved e-mail contact with a number of different people from all over the world. It was also very difficult and our submission ran into 50 pages with about 145 pages of appendices (most of which are on the website). However, in as far as it means anything, EAP has accepted the scientific validity of Body-Psychotherapy. This is minuted and according to it's own processes. This document is available to others and is being used in South America and other countries to establish the scientific validity of body-Psychotherapy there.

The next job is to begin to put pressure on some of the National Umbrella & Accrediting Organisation for Psychotherapy to ask their Ministries of Health to accept Body Psychotherapy as a "scientifically valid" branch of psychotherapy in that country – viz in Austria. This should allow the Austrian Body Psychotherapy schools to be accepted by the Austrian NAO. A document on the Scientific Validity of Body Psychotherapy will need to be written or trnaslated into German, and this is being done, iand n Austria, a single “college” of Body-Psychotherapy may also have to be established and identified as the training institute.  This is the next step. It is hoped that this “college” will teach “body-psychotherapy” and then the various different modalities will also teach their specialisations.  We hope for collaboration with Biosynthesis and Bioenergetics as well as perhaps KaracterBewgungTherapie Then it can all be submitted to the Austrian Ministry of Health. There is a similar process happening in Germany as which will also probably come into use.

As mentioned, in Switzerland the situation is a lot healthier. In a recent e-mail, Dr. Thomas Ehrensperger, Chairperson of CH-EABP, wrote: "The Swiss Charta of Psychotherapy evaluates and accepts schools and not methods. It gives quality standards for training,supervision etc. 5 schools of Body Psychotherapy have already successfully applied and are full members of the Charta (this is 30% of all the so-far accepted schools). (This) is a great success for Body Psychotherapy. The accepted schools are: Bioenergetics, Biosynthesis, IKP, GFK (Juchli/Geiser), IIBP (J.Rosenberg-Institut). These 5 schools are also extraordinary members of CH-EABP as well as 4 others which have not yet applied to the Charta. CH-EABP is now in a process of creating its own quality & standards not only for training but also for the practice of Body Psychotherapy, the aim is to apply for acceptance as an official and scientific method in collaboration with the Swiss government. We are optimistic to form our own Charta of Body Psychotherapy (a process which is also contemporarly happening on the level of EABP)."

We have also heard that Body Psychotherapists in Brazil and in other countries are fighting similar battles. We hope that the EABP Scientific Validation answers can help them formulate their own documentation in these battles. We also hope that this document will become a "living document" in that there will be additions and changes made to it regularly.

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Chapter 6: Next Steps:

Europe: A major step has been taken with the presentation of the paper on Scientific Validation to the EAP and it's acceptance of it, and of establishing EABP as an EWAO for Body-Psychotherapy. The next steps in this wider acceptance process have been started; which is to get at least one of the country's blocking Body-Psychotherapy to change its position. Body-Psychotherapy continues to establish itself further as a mainstream branch of psychotherapy.

National Associations: In Austria, the different schools are considering working together in a single institute.  In Italy, the Italian National Association for Body-Psychotherapy, which is a mixture of schools and individuals, is working well and gathering strength.  The Greek National Association are hosting the next EABP Congress in Athens/Marathon in October 2004 which will involve collaboration with many others.  The Yugoslav National Association is growing in strength and will hopefully soon join EABP.  The Russian National Association is also getting stronger and links between it and EABP have just increased.  A Scandanavian National Association is forming from a colescence of Body-Psychotherapists in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland & Iceland.  The UKCP are having their next conference in September 2004 on “The Body in Psychotherapy” and hopefully a UK National Association of Body-Psychotherapy will soon form. In France, there is new energy in the National Committee and hopefully a new national Asso ciation, linked to the FFdP will form. Links with the USABP in America and the new Brazilian National Association for Body-psychotherapy are good and the next international Confgress on Body-Psychotherapy is in Brazil in 2005.

Contacts with the different modalities are very good. Biosynthesis has long had an excellent relationship with EABP and whilst it remains separate, there is still a good feeling between EABP and the IABS. Paul Boyesen's PsychoOrganic Analysis is very strong and supportive in the EAP. There we also have good contacts with some Radix people in France, and some other new Body Psychotherapy schools, there for different reasons and wearing different hats. The European Bioenergetics Association is coming much closer and opening its doors a little more to us. There is very good collaboration between the different Body-Psychotherapy schools in the Netherlands and they have collaborated together for a one-day symposium in February 2004. Hakomi in Europe is already a member of The FORUM. Bodynamics is a member of The FORUM.  Core Energetics is joining The FORUM and applying soon for scientific validity.  Various Biodynamic Psychology training schools and similar groups are involved with The FORUM and we hope for more. Malcolm Brown, the founder of Organismic Psychotherapy, is interested in coming back into Europe and came to the DGK Berlin Congress and other Congresses. Jay Stattman's Unitive Psychotherapy is very strong in the Netherlands and in Frankfurt and is very involved in The FORUM. These are to name just a very few. Most recently, we have a person trained by Ilana Rubenfeld in Rubenfeld Synergy (well known in USA) now living in Europe apply successfully to join EABP and a new Polish member Body-Psychotherapist and Psychologist. From another discipline has joined.
Over and beyond these developments, there is much that can be done:
Research projects are being started and some have been done, but little information is widely available. EABP tries to help this process by putting information about research projects on the EABP website.   This area may be one of the increasingly important directions for the next few years. Funding research is extremely expensive and the best work is done collaboratively. We want to encourage the formulation of joint projects: the CH-EABP and the DGK (EABP National Organisations in Switzerland & Germany) are also funding some research projects, which is commendable.
EABP continues to fund the EABP Bibliography of Body Psychotherapy. This became available for the first time in the summer of 2002 on CD-ROM and a second larger version should be out in 2004. Currently the Bibliography stands at about 2,500 entries, and there is a lot more material out there, and in many different languages, and formats.  A listing should also go up on the EABP website soon.   Some of the current entries are a little incomplete: these need completing, especially the missing abstracts. EABP pays a small amount (1 Euro per entry] for multiple entries and we would really like to associate more with Body-Psychotherapy institutes who have enthusiastic students to share their databases and earn some more money off us.
 Currently there are two excellent journals in Body-Psychotherapy: Energy & Character (in its various formats and languages) and the USABP Journal, mainly for USABP members.  EABP currently does not have the resources and expertise to produce its own Journal.  We are considering liaising with one (or both) of these journals.
| Tapes:
We have several lists of tapes from Body-Psychotherapy congresses, so there may be an opportunity to build on these and develop somnething here as well. The tapes are supplied by different organisations, but there could be a central listing, if anyone is prepared to put them togather. Many training institutes also have tape collections and videos. Perhaps these could all be centralised and made more available.
Several new books about Body-Psychotherapy exist.  We are putting these together onto a website page to assist people to know about them and order them, either direct from the publisher or through something like Amazon.
 There is a new PowerPoint projection display on Body-Psychotherapy (in English) available to download from the EABP website.

Body Psychotherapy is currently the strongest it has been for many years. It has an increasingly high profile in Europe, in the USA and now in South America, particularly Brazil. It is establishing its scientific base and is consolidating this. There is a lot more work ahead, and it is potentially very exciting.

© Courtenay Young, 2004