APPENDIX 27 : Bodynamic Research Projects by Lennard Ollars
In 1980 Lennart Ollars completed an empiric pilot-study of reliability focussing on the Bodymap, a diagnostic / assessment tool developed in Bodynamic Analysis. Two groups of each three therapists made bodymaps of the same client, and the results vere compared on three levels: mapping, interpretation of map and treatment proposals. Reliability showed out to be acceptable.
This study was accepted by The University of Copenhagen as part of Lennart Ollars' academic degree in psychology.
Lennart Ollars: Muskelpalpationstests plidelighed. København 1980.
(Lennart Ollars: Reliability of The Bodymap. Copenhagen 1980).
Lennart Ollars: Voksnes udvikling.1981 Reprinted in 1984 by Kreatik Copenhagen
(Lennart Ollars: Personal development of Adults. Kreatik 1984 Copenhagen)
Eva Brendstrup: Klienter i Bodynamic Analyse. Sociologisk Institut, Københavns Universitet Juli 1998.
(Eva Brendstrup: Clients in Bodynamic Analysis. Institute of Sociology, University of Copenhagen 1998).
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Here is a listing of some major books discussing experimental studies on the importance of considering bodily behavior to understand human interaction and psychopathologic behaviour. There are many sources to this list, and therefore several formats.
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About Bodynamic Analysis
The Bodynamic Institutes
Bodynamic Analysis is practiced and trained in several Countries in Europe and in North America - see below. The main responsibity for all the trainings is held by The Bodynamic Institute Aps. of Copenhagen, or more precisly a Board of International Educational Managers. The International Director of Bodynamic Trainings is Lennart Ollars (DK). The Danish Institute has two "sister" institutes: one in Vancouver Canada, and one in San Francisco USA, both function as separate Institutes with this one and only exception: their educational trainings have to be approved by Bodynamic Institute Aps. Copenhagen. Trainers are recruted from the Institutes in Denmark, Canada and USA.
Bodynamic Institute Aps. phone: +45 3537 8400
Struenseegade 13 fax: +45 3537 8448
DK - 2200 N Denmark e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Bodynamic US phone: + 1 510 525 8090
PO Box 6008 fax: + 1 707 823 8169
Albany C.A. 94706 e-mail: email@example.com
Bodynamic Canada phone: + 1 604 878 7660
6031 Brooks Cresent fax: + 1 604 530 4305
Surrey B.C. V3S 7L1 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Origins and modality
The Bodynamic System was founded by Lisbeth Marcher in Denmark. Lisbeth Marcher developed the basis of Bodynamic Analysis from the late 60's and through the 70's observing correlations between musclular response and different psychological processes. Some of this work was done in collaboration with several of the later senior members of Bodynamic Institute. From the 80's, and especially from 1985 when Bodynamic Institute Copenhagen was founded, working on the theoretical and methodological development was shared by senior members of Bodynamic Institute, still though under the main responsibility of Lisbeth Marcher, who is also director of Bodynamic Institute, Denmark.
Bodynamic Analysis is a resource-oriented type of Body Psychotherapy, based on a detailed developmental model, combining motoric, social and psychological development. We work with a level of specificity that includes the correlations between single muscles, which ego-functions they are connected to and which characterstructures they are connected to. The spiritual dimention is acknowledged and included in our work, but is not seen as the major part of the work, which centres around personal and social development.
Interaction and intervention is adjusted to defense and character-structures, as well as to the contract between client and therapist, prior to any therapy process. Interaction and intervention is both verbal and by toutch. We always work with clients and workshop-participants when they are fully dressed. Bodynamic Analysis has a pretty visible element of teaching although it clearly is a type of Body Psychotherapy. We have learned from observation and feedback that we work just as often in a teaching mode as in a theraputic mode. We consider our way of combining these two modes of interaction as one of our special characteristics.
The Bodynamic System has several modalities: individual therapy, group therapy, marriage and couple therapy, developmental groups, social skills, as well as workshops with a more specific focus: team-building, development of leadership, etc.
We percieve the theory and methods of Bodynamic Analysis to be pretty original both in our way of combining known theory and also with truly original contributions. Nevertheless our work, and also the initial development of Bodynamic Analysis, conducted by Lisbeth Marcher, is also a result of inspiration from many sources. Some of these inspirational sources are: pedagogical theory and tradition (Neill, Makarenko, Vygotsky etc); animal ethiology (Lorentz); theory of motoric development including its correlation to psychological and social development (a pretty well developed and acknowledged tradition in Denmark and Norway - an ex: Britta Holle); norwegian tradition concerning psychosomatic connections: (Tryggve Braatøy and Lillemor Johnsen); Developmental Psychology (Piaget, Erikson, Bruun (Gesell, Ulin) and Stern); Psychodynamic theory; Humanistic Psychology, including TA (Transactional Analysis), Client-centered Therapy (Carl Rogers), Abraham Maslow and Gestalt Therapy; Life-Form Analysis - originally based on class-specific theory of socialisation, as inspired by Marxistic psychology, later developed to have a more subcultural and cultural focus.
For further information about the origins and modality of Bodynamic Analysis we refer to our literature list, especially the following titles:
Peter Bernhardt: "Individuation, Mutual Connection and the Body's resources"
Peter Bernhardt: "The art of following structure"
Lisbeth Marcher, Erik Jarlnæs and Lennart Ollars: "Fra afspænding til Bodynamic Analyse" (this paper is not translated to english; the title means: From Relaxation Therapy to Bodynamic Analysis.)
The essential theory
We understand the human being as a social being, whose strongest motivation is the strive for as much mutual connection as possible. Taking this point is deliberate. We obviously recognise the importance of sexuality, but only as one of the emotions. In this respect we differ from Reich and most Reichians.
Development of personality (bodily, social and psychological) depends on at least three kinds of interaction beteen the individual and its surroundings:
- pre- and perinatal processes
- the characterological development that comes out of everyday interaction
- more sudden events, eventually mostly like peak experiences, eventually traumatic events causing different degrees of post-traumatic disturbances
Also the transpersonal or spiritual dimention of human development is seen as influenced by all three kinds of interaction, as well of course as by the chosen practice.
It is our basic theory, based on actual observations, that the psychological, social and motoric development is interconnected and inseparable. Our basic theory contains three aspects of the ego: body, identity and social role, as well as 10 functions of the ego: Connectedness; Posture and Positioning; Centering; Boundaries; Grounding and Reality Testing; Balances; Cognitive skills; Management of Energy; Self-Expression; and finally: Habits of Interpersonal Contact.
We understand the child's development as moving through a series of thematic phases: existance, need, autonomy, will, love-sexuality, opinion, and solidarity-performance. Also the teenage period is understood as a significant period of personal development. It is part of our theory (based on actual observations) that the child in each of these thematic phases can go through a healthy development or get stuck in either hypo-responsive or hyper-responsive bodily-psycholocically-socially patterns. It is our observation that the result of this psychological and social development is connected to the motoric development, and thus is mirrorred in body and movement of the individual, so that defense patterns as well as ressources are reflected in body, muscles-responses and movement. A special attention is also given to development and management of boundaries in interaction with others.
We know that personality, later-on in life,is remoulded through a series of adult developmental phases, overlaying and interacting with the character structures developed during childhood and adolesence. We certainly work with events and themes from adult life in every therapy process, but we do not have a specific Bodynamic model of adult development phases. When we are looking into adult development phases we refer to authors like: Erikson and Lievegood.
Both principles and specific ways of working psychotheraputicly are developed to meet variations of developmental disturbances as they are expressed bodily, psychologically and in social skills. In a parallel way Bodynamic Analysis has developed specific ways of understanding and working with disturbed pre- and perinatal processes and with post traumatic disturbances.
For further information about the theory underlying Bodynamic Analysis we refer to our litterature list, especially the following titles:
Peter Bernhardt, Marianne Bentzen and Joel Isaacs: "Waking the Body Ego I: Core Concepts and Principles"
Marianne Bentzen, Peter Bernhardt and Joel Isaacs: "Waking the Body Ego II: Psychomotor Development and Character Structure"
Steen Jørgensen: "Character Structure and Shock"
Steen Jørgensen(ed): "Forløsning af Choktraumer" (this book is not translated as a whole, title means: "Release of Shock-traumas")
Lisbeth Marcher and. Lennart Ollars: "Bodynamic Analytic Developmental Re-birth Therapy".
The basic methodology
We are working with a series of basic methods in Bodynamic Analysis:
It is far to big a project to describe all these basic models in this context. Most of the models are described in various papers and hand-outs. For further information about the basic methodology of Bodynamic Analysis we refer to our literature list.
Trainings in Bodynamic Analysis take place in Canada (Vancouver), USA (California), Norway, Sweden, Holland and Denmark. Contact on of the above mentioned Institutes for more information.
Requirements prior to trainings
Module 1: Bodynamic One-year Training ( 1 year) This module is not exclusively theraputic focused, but broader on therapy, communication, teaching, consultation etc.:
candidates have to be at least 25 years
candidates have to have a relevant profession that is a profession that allowes them to use theory and models. At this level it means mostly psychotherapists, bodytherapists, teachers, social workers etc.
Candidates apply by filling out a written application-form. Some are accepted directly on basis of their information, others accepted or rejected after phone interviews.
Module 2: Bodynamic Practitioner Training (2 years)
candidates have to have completed the one-year training
candidates have to have a 3 year education within the relevant areas (psychology, teaching, bodytherapy etc), or equivalent quantity and level of education and experience
candidates have to have a work/profession that allowes them to use theory, models and skills
candidates have to show a certain degree of maturity/experience in handling crises
Candidates apply by filling out a written application-form, and are selected after an interview (the interview to deepen questions mentioned above)
Module 3: Bodynamic Analyst Training (2 years):
candidates have to have fullfilled certification connected to the practitioner training
candidates must have a genuine practice as psychotherapists, and have maintained such through at least one year
Candidates apply by filling out a written application-form, and are selected after an interview (the interview to deepen questions mentioned above).
ARTICLES AND BOOKS ON BODYNAMIC ANALYSIS. Updated august 1998.
BD = danish version
BE = english version
BF = french version
DT = german version
BP = polish version
BN = norweigian version
BS = swedish version
Same no. indicates versions of same publication in different languages.
Mulighederne i Kropsdynamisk Analyse.
Bodynamic Institute, København 1989.
Kroppen husker det hele.
Bodynamic Institute, København 1993.
Bodynamic Institute, København 1995.
BD 24 Marianne Bentzen:
Intimacy, Sexuality & Boundaries in Body Psychotherapy.
P. 18 - 20 in Bernhard Maul (ed.):Body Psychotherapy or The Art of Contact.Verlag Bernhard Maul, Berlin 1992.
BE 25 Marianne Bentzen:
Healthy love and the psychotherapist.
Requested Presentation at the Strassbourg Congress 1993 of the European Association for Body Psychotherapy.
BD 9f Marianne Bentzen og Erik jarlnæs:
Udviklingen af Bodynamic choktraumeterapi - en historisk oversigt. P. 51 - 55 in Steen Jørgensen (red): Forløsning af choktraumer.
BS 9f Marianne Bentzen og Erik Jarlnæs: Utvecklingen av Bodynamic chocktraumeterapi - En historisk översikt.
P. 45 - 49 in Steen Jørgensen (red.): Förlösning av chocktrauman. (Swedish version of BD 9f)).
BE 11 Marianne Bentzen, Erik Jarlnæs, Peter Levine: The Body Self in Psychotherapy. A Psycho-motoric Approch to Self Psychology.
P. 36 - 47 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.
BD 1 Marianne Bentzen, Steen A. Jørgensen, Lisbeth Marcher: Kropsdynamisk Karakterstruktur. Forlaget KREATIK, Hørsholm 1990.
BE 1 Marianne Bentzen, Steen A. Jørgensen, Lisbeth Marcher: The Bodynamic Character Structure Model.
Energy and Character, Volume 20 No.1, April 1989. Corrections in volume 21, No. 1, April 1990. (English version of BD1))
BP 1 Marianne Bentzen, Steen A. Jørgensen, Lisbeth Marcher: Model strukturing charakteni opracowany W. Instrytucie BODY-namic.
Rezonans I Dialog nr. 4, 1992. (Polish version of BE 1).
BD 2 Marianne Bentzen, Steen A. Jørgensen, Lisbeth Marcher: Kropsdynamisk karakterstruktur - en model.
2. udviderede udgave. Forlaget KREATIK, København 1992.
Marianne Bentzen, Peter Bernhardt and Joel Isaacs: Waking the Body Ego II, Unpublished manuscript, Bodynamic Institute USA, 1993. Published in Energy and Character, 1997. Also p. 112 - 137 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.
BD 7 Peter Bernhardt: Individuation, samhørighed og kroppens ressourcer: Et interview med Lisbeth Marcher.
P. 20-32 in Erik Jarlnæs (red): Betydningen af at høre sammen. (Danish translation of BE 7 or BE 7a).
BE 7 Peter Bernhardt: Individuation, mutual connection and the BODY's resources. A somatic view of human development.
An interview with Lisbeth Marcher. Bodynamic Institute, 1991.
BE 7a Peter Bernhardt: Individuation, Mutual Connection and the Body's Resources: An Interview with Lisbeth Marcher.
P. 281-293 in: Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 6 (4), Summer 1992. (Shorter version of BE 7).
Also p. 72 - 79 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.
BF 7 (Lisbeth Marcher), Peter Bernhard: Individuation, liasons interpersonelles et ressources du corps (interview).
Side 52-58 i: Marsyas, Revue de pédagogie musicale et chorégraphique nr. 22. Institut de pédagogie musicale et chorégraphique, la Villette, Paris, 1992. (French version of BE 7 or 7a ).
BP 7 Peter Bernhardt: Rozwoj jednostki, wzajemna wiez potencjal ciala - somatyczne podejscie do rozowoju czlowieka.
Rezonans I Dialog nr. 4, 1992. (Polish version of BE 7).
BE 9c Peter Bernhardt, MFCC: Somatic Approaches to Shock. A Review of the Work of the Bodynamic Institute, and Peter Levine.
Manuscript, 1991. Published as p. 150 - 171 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.
BP 9c Peter Bernhardt: Somatyczne podejscie w pracy z szokiem. Przeglad prac Petera Levine'a oraz Instytutu Bodynamic.
Rezonans I Dialog nr. 4, 1992. (Polish version of BE 9c).
BD 38 Peter Bernhardt: Kunsten at følge struktur.: Et interview med Lisbeth Marcher om Bodynamic- systemets rødder.
P. 33-52 i Erik Jarlnæs (red): Betydningen af at høre sammen. (Danish version of BE 38).
BE 38 Peter Bernhardt: The Art Of Following Structure. An Interview with Lisbeth Marcher exploring the Roots of the Bodynamic System.
Bodynamic Institute, 1995. Also p. 80 - 93 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.
BE 26 Peter Bernhardt, Marianne Bentzen and Joel Isaacs: Waking the Body Ego.
Bodynamic Institute, 1995. Also p. 94 - 111 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.
BE 26a Peter Bernhardt,Marianne Bentzen and Joel Isaacs: Waking the Body Ego - Part 1.
P. 47 - 62 in Energy and Character, Volume 26 No. 1, April 1995. (First half of BE 26)
BE 26b Peter Bernhardt, Marianne Bentzen and Joel Isaacs: Waking the Body Ego - Part 2.
P. 38 - 50 in Energy and Character, Volume 27 No. 1, April 1996. (Second half of BE 26)
BD 35 Susanne Bjertrup: Søhesten og mandlen. Weekendavisen, 2. - 8. juni 1995. Mai-Britt Bjørndal: Psykosomatisk Teori og Kropsterapi.
Specialeopgave i klinisk psykologi ved kandidatstudiet i psykologi, Århus Universitet. Eget tryk: 1997.
BD 44 Merete Holm Brantbjerg: Tag vare på dig selv som behandler. P. 94-104 in Erik Jarlnæs (red): Betydningen af at høre sammen.
BD 44a Merete Holm Brantbjerg: Tag vare på dig selv som behandler. P. 6-14 in Nyhedsbrev for psykoterapeutforeningen. (Shorter version of BD 44)
BE 44 Merete Holm Brantbjerg: Caring for Yourself while caring for Others.
P. 138 - 145 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.
BN 48 Merete Holm Brantbjerg og Lars Jahnsen: Hvordan ta vare på oss selv som behandlere? P. 16-19 in Nettverk-Nytt nr. 3, mai 1995.
Eva Brendstrup: Klienter i Bodynamic Analyse. Sociologisk Institut ,Kbh.Universitet: Juli 1998.
Sonja Fich: Testmanual/Bodymap. Bodynamic Institute, København 1992.
Sonja Fich (ed.): Testmanual/Bodymap. 2. udgave (udvidet). Bodynamic Institute, København: 1997.
Sonja Fich, Lisbeth Marcher: Psykologi og Anatomi. Bodynamic Institute, København: 1997.
Sonja Fich (ed.): Jeg-funktioner. Bodynamic Institute, København: 1997.
BD 45 Susan Forling: Traumatic memory: A Bodynamic Perspective.
P. 9-10 in Newsletter of BC Association of Clinical Counsellors, Vol. 07 nr. 3, nov. 1995.
BD 51 Elsebeth Egholm: Man udvikler sig af god kritik. P. 108 - 110 in Alt for Damerne no. 18, 1997.
BD 10b Peter Hjerrild: KROPSTERAPI. Glemmer du - så husker kroppen. (Interview med Lennart Ollars). Alt for damerne nr. 41, 8. oktober 1992.
Tove Hvid: Kroppens fortællinger. Forlaget MODTRYK, Århus 1990.
Tove Hvid: Kroppens fortællinger i billeder. Forlaget MODTRYK, Århus 1992.
Tove Hvid: Hvad kroppen kan fortælle. Et anderledes kommunikationsprojekt. Ribe Amt, 1993.
BD 33 Tove Hvid og Nancy Bratt: Kropslæsning og Rorschack-testning. P. 325-45 in Pædagogisk-Psykologisk Rådgivning nr. 5-6, 1994.
Jan Ivanouw & Lisbeth Marcher: Individuel behandling.
P. 125 - 151 in Steen Jørgensen og Lennart Ollars (red.): Afspændings-pædagogens arbejdsområder. Eget tryk, 1979.
BN 47 Lars Jahnsen: Kroppens fortellinger - om terapi og bevissthedsutvikling. P. 10-11 + 15 in Nettverk-Nytt nr. 2, april 1994.
BE 12 Erik Jarlnæs: Bodynamic Analysis. Bodynamic Institute, København 1989.
BD 22 Erik Jarlnæs: Grænseoverskridende oplevelser. Tidsskrift for idræt, april 1992.
BD 17 Erik Jarlnæs: Kunsten at løse knuder op. Bodynamic Institute, København 1993.
BE 17 Erik Jarlnæs: The Art of Undoing Knots. Bodynamic Institute, København 1995. (English version of BD 17).
BD 40 Erik Jarlnæs: Betydningen af at høre sammen. Forlaget Kreatik/Bodynamic Institute: København: 1995.
BD 42 Erik Jarlnæs: Grundtvig og Bodynamic - et historisk perspektiv. P. 53-57 in Erik Jarlnæs (red): Betydningen af at høre sammen.
BD 49 Erik Jarlnæs og Merete Holm Brantbjerg: Pas på dig selv - focus på hjælperrollen. Bodynamic Institute, 1996.
Steen Jørgensen: Kropsorienteret gruppeterapi. Specialeopgave i klinisk psykologi ved kandidatstudiet i psykologi,
Københavns Universitet 1978. Eget tryk, København: 1978.
Steen Jørgensen: Kropsterapeutisk karakterteori. Afløsningsopgave i almen psykologi ved kandidatstudiet i psykologi,
Københavns Universitet 1978. Eget tryk, København:1978.
BD 3 Steen Jørgensen: 3 artikler om KROPSSPROG OG KROPSLÆSNING til brug for undervisning ved Bodynamic Institute.
Forlaget KREATIK, Hørsholm 1990.
BD 9a Steen Jørgensen: Bearbejdning af chock/posttraumatisk stress i Bodynamic Analyse.
P. 9-36 in Steen Jørgensen (red): Forløsning af choktraumer.
BS 9a Steen Jørgensen: Bearbetning av chocktrauman/posttraumatisk stress i Bodynamic Analyse.
P. 5 - 30 in Steen Jørgensen (red.): Förlösning av chocktrauman. - Se denne. (Swedish version of BS 9a).
BE 9a Steen Jørgensen: Bodynamic Analytic Work with Shock/Post-Traumatic Stress. Energy and Character, Volume 23 nr. 2. september 1992 . (English version of BD 9a).
BT 9a Steen Jørgensen: Bodynamisch-Analytische Arbeit mit Schock und Post-Traumatischen Stress.
P. 116-132 in: Energie & Charakter, 23. Jahrgang Heft 5, Juni 1992. (German version of BE 9a).
BD 9d Steen Jørgensen: Chok/posttraumatisk Stress: Symptomer og årsager. P. 57-75 in Steen Jørgensen (red.): Forløsning af choktraumer.
BS 9d Steen Jørgensen: Chocktrauman/posttraumatisk stress: Symptom och orsaker.
P. 51 - 67 in Steen Jørgensen (red.): Förlösning av chocktrauman. (Swedish version of BD 9d).
BD 9e Steen Jørgensen (red.): Forløsning af choktraumer. Forlaget KREATIK, København, 1993.
BS 9e Steen Jørgensen (red.): Förlösning av chocktrauman. Centrum for Intrgrativ Psykoterapi, Mi Årling AB. Karlstad, 1994.
(Swedish version of BD 9e).
BD 20 Steen Jørgensen: Karakterstrukturer, traumer og chok. Bodynamic Institute, 1995. (Danish version of BT 20)
BE 20 Steen Jørgensen: Character structure and shock. Bodynamic Institute, 1995.
Published as p. 172 - 184 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body. (English version of BT 20)
BT 20 Steen Jørgensen: Charakterstruktur und Schock.
P. 160 - 191 i Dagmar Hoffmann-Axthelm (red.): Schock und Berührung, Körper und Seele, Bd. 4. Oldenburg: Tranform Verlag, 1994.
BD 53 Steen Jørgensen, Lisbeth Marcher: Fortolkning af Bodymap - Bodynamic Analyses Personlighedstest.
P. 57 - 72 in: Sonja Fich (ed.): Testmanual/Bodymap.
BE 53 Steen Jørgensen, Lisbeth Marcher: Bodymap Reading - Bodymap Interpretation. Bodynamic Institute, København: 1998.
BD 4 Bente Kjær: Motorisk og Perceptuel Udvikling 0-7 år. Eget tryk, København 1990.
BE 4 Bente Kjær: Motor and perceptual development 0-7 years. Eget tryk, København. May 1992. (English version of BD 4).
Henrik Lauridsen-Katborg: Et rør til himlen. Personlighedens grænseland. Modtryk, Aarhus: 1995.
BE 50 Peter Levine and Ian Macnaughton: Breath and consciousness. P. 19-37 in: Energy and Character, Volume 27, No. 1, April 1996.
Also p. 197 - 212 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.
BD 23 Gabriella Bering Liisberg, Dorthe Taxbøl, Ellen Egede Andersen: Liv i moderen. Interview med kropsdynamisk psykoterapeut Lisbeth Marcher.
P. 4 - 8 in: Tidsskrift for Jordemødre, 1990.
BE 29 Ian Macnaughtom, Marianne Bentzen, Erik Jarlnæs: Ethical Consideration in Somatic Psychotherapies.
P. 38 - 45 in Energy and Character, Volume 24 no. 2, September 1993.
Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body. Integral Press, North Vancouver, BC, Canada: 1997.
Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D.: The Narrative of the Body-Mind - Minding the Body.
P. 25-34 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.
Ian Macnaughton, Marianne Bentzen, Eric Jarlnæs: Ethical Consideration in Somatic Therapies.
P. 64 - 69 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.
BE 31 Lisbeth Marcher: Spisning i stedet for. P. 47 - 58 in: Tykke børn - trygge børn. En symposierapport. Brundhøjskolen, Glesborg, 1994.
Lisbeth Marcher: Energy Concepts and Body Psychotherapy. Bodynamic Institute, København: 1997.
BD 41 Lisbeth Marcher, Erik Jarlnæs og Lennart Ollars: Fra afspænding til Bodynamic Analyse.
P. 8-19 in Erik Jarlnæs (red): Betydningen af at høre sammen.
BE 30 Lisbeth Marcher, Peter Levine: Developmental and Shock Trauma.
P. 279 - 287 in Bernhard Maul (ed.): Body Psychotherapy or The Art of Contact. Verlag Bernhard Maul, Berlin 1992.
BD 6 Lisbeth Marcher, Lennart Ollars: Kropdynamisk analytisk arbejde med refødselsterapi. Forlaget KREATIK, Hørsholm 1989.
BD 6a Lisbeth Marcher, Lennart Ollars: Kropsdynamisk analytisk arbejde med refødselsterapi.
P. 226-231 in: Nordisk Psykologi Vol. 41 (3) 1989. (Shortened version of BD 6).
BE 6 Lisbeth Marcher, Lennart Ollars: Bodynamic Analytic Developmental Re-birth Therapy.
Energy and Character, Volume 22 No.2, September 1991.(English version of BD 6).
BT 6 Lisbeth Marcher, Lennart Ollars: Der Entwicklungs-Rebirthing-Prozess der Bodynamischen Analyse.
P. 60 - 76 in: Energie & Charakter, 22. Jahrgang Heft 4, Dezember 1991. (German version of BE 6).
BD 10a Bodil Moes: Når musklerne sladrer om barndommen (Interview med Marianne Bentzen). Femina nr. 5, 1991.
BD 16 Bente Mørup: Om børns chok i hverdagen. Bodynamic Institute, København.
BD 16a Bente Mørup: Om børns chok i hverdagen. Bodynamic Institute, København. (Shorter version of BD 16).
BD 21 Ellen Ollars & Bjørn Kassøe Andersen: Spirituel jordforbindelse. P. 5 - 7 in Nyt Aspekt nr. 3, 1994.
Lennart Ollars: Muskelpalpationstests pålidelighed. Eget tryk, 1980
Lennart Ollars. Voksnes Samhørighed. Forlaget Kreatik ,Kbh.:1984.
BD 15a Lennart Ollars: Europæisk krops-psykoterapi I. P. 654-656 in: Dansk Psykolog Nyt, 43. årgang, nr. 21, 1989.
BD 15b Lennart Ollars: Europæisk krops-psykoterapi II. P. 685-688 in: Dansk Psykolog Nyt, 43. årgang , nr. 22, 1989.
BE 15 Lennart Ollars: European Congress of BODY-Psychotherapy. Energy and Character, Volume 21 No.1, April 1990.
(English version of BD 15a og BD 15b).
BT 15 Lennart Ollars: Der Europäische Kongress für Körper-Psychotherapie. Side 42-49 i: Energie & Charakter, 21.
Jahrgang Heft l, August 1990. (German version of BE 15).
BD 9b Lennart Ollars: Kropsdynamisk analytisk arbejde med overgreb. P. 366 - 368 and p. 406 - 408 in: Dansk Psykolog Nyt nr. 11 og 12, 1991.
Also published as p. 37 - 50 in Steen Jørgensen (red.): Forløsning af choktraumer.
BS 9b Lennart Ollars: Bearbetning av övergrepp i Bodynamic Analyse,
P. 31 - 43 in Steen Jørgensen (red.): Förlösning av chocktrauman. (Swedish version).
BE 9b Lennart Ollars: Bodynamic Analytic Work with Assault and Abuse. P. 63 - 70 in: Energy and Character, Volume 25 No. 1, April 1995.
BD 18 Lennart Ollars: Alene-terapeuter -burde ikke findes. P. 630 - 631 in Psykolog Nyt nr. 18, 1993.
BD 28 Lennart Ollars: Pas på den indre rindalist. P. 437-39 in Psykolog Nyt nr. 12, 1994.
BD 32 Lennart Ollars: Mulige veje til integration og problemløsning. Bodynamic Institute, 1994.
BE 32 Lennart Ollars: Flying or Falling. Bodynamic Institute, 1994. (English version of BD 32).
BD 43 Lennart Ollars: Fra amatør til mester. P. 58-93 in Erik Jarlnæs (red): Betydningen af at høre sammen.
BD 39 Lennart Ollars: Hvad en terapeut har brug for. Supervisorspot 1. P. 12-13 in Psykolog Nyt no. 2, 1996.
Konsekvenser af manglende balance. Supervisorspot 2. P. 6-7 in Psykolog Nyt no. 3, 1996.
Problemniveauer - orden på værktøjskassen. Supervisorspot 3. P. 12-13 in Psykolog Nyt no. 4, 1996.
Se, mærke, lytte, spørge - før der handles. Supervisorspot 4. P. 18-19 in Psykolog Nyt no. 5, 1996.
Præstation og supervision. Supervisorspot 5. P. 10-11 in Psykolog Nyt no. 6, 1996.
Kroppen som anker. Supervisorspot 6. P. 8-10 in Psykolog Nyt no. 7, 1996.
Terapiproces & terapeutrolle. Supervisorspot 7. P. 6-8 in Psykolog Nyt no. 9, 1996.
BD 39a Lennart Ollars: Supervision - med kroppen som anker. In print - Bodynamic Institute, 1998. (alternative version of BD 39)
BD 52 Lennart Ollars: I anledning af Reich. P. 12 - 13 in: Psykolog Nyt no. 14, 1997.
Lennart Ollars: Hvad siger kroppen. Bodynamic Institute, København: 1998.
Lennart Ollars: Teamudvikling - hvordan gør man det ? Forthcoming, Bodynamic Institute, København.
BE 8 Babette Rothschild: Filling one of psycholotgy's gaps. Energy and Character Vol. 20 No. 1, April 1989.
BE 13 Babette Rothschild: Bodynamic Bodypsychotherapie. P. 27-30 in: Radix Review vol. 1 - 1, 1991.
BD 14 Babette Rothschild: Post-traumatisk stress. ABC i Posttraumatisk stress for Krops-Psykoterapeuter.
P. 4 - 7 in: Danske Fysioterapeuter nr. 22, 1993.
BE 14 Babette Rothschild: A shock primer for the body-psychotherapist.
P. 33-38 in: Energy and Character., Volume 24 No. 1, April 1993. (English version of BD 14)
BT 14 Babette Rothschild: Ein Leitfaden zum Thema Schock. Side 26-32 i: Energie & Charakter, 24. Jahrgang Heft. 7, Juni 1993.
(German version of BE 14).
BE 19 Babette Rothschild: Transference and Countertransference P. 25-31 in: Energy and Character, Volume25 No. 2, September 1994
BE 34 Babette Rothschild: Defining Trauma and Shock in Body-Psycho Therapy. P. 61-65 in Energy and Character
BD 37 Babette Rothschild, Eric Jarlnæs: Nervous System Imbalances And Post-Traumatic Stress: A Psycho-Physical Approach.
Bodynamic Institute, 1994.
BD 36 Tine Seibæk: Vent ikke for længe. (Interview med Marianne Bentzen). Femina nr. 7, s. 32-33, 1995.
BD 46 Annette Tholstrup: Det chokerede barn. P. 64-67 in Forældre og barn nr. 2, 1996.
BN Jan Steiner Urdshals: Kroppsorientert Psykoterapi: En sammenligning av karakteranalytisk vegetoterapi og kroppsdynamisk analyse,
med henblik på teorier om utvikling, opprettholdelse og endring af psykopatologi.
Hovedopgave Embetsstudiet i Psykologi, Universitetet i Bergen, Vår 1991.
Tom Verpe: Egopsykologi og kroppspsykologi. Et forsøg på teoretisk integrasjon.
Hovedopgave embedsstudiet, psykologi. Universitetet i Bergen. Eget tryk. Bergen: 1995.
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APPENDIX 31: Extracts from the PBSP website: www.pbsp.com
What is PBSP : Pesso Boyden System Psychomotor?
PBSP is a psychotherapy that facilitates essential human processes and the satisfaction of basic developmental needs that result in a life of meaning and pleasure. PBSP provides a time and space for "structures", a symbolic reenactment procedure that uses the resources of the body, mind and soul to fulfill the innate need to:
Become wholly and truly "who we are"
Satisfy the basic developmental needs for "place," "nurture," "support," "protection," and "limits"
Integrate and unify the polarities of our biological and psychological being
Develop our consciousness
Develop our self-organizing center - "pilot"
Realize our personal uniqueness and potentiality
HOW DOES IT WORK?
In an atmosphere of safety, care and respect that we call the "possibility sphere," the therapist closely and carefully tracks the meaning of verbal, nonverbal, and emotional information that comes to clients' attention as it rises to the surface of their minds and bodies. This meaning becomes increasingly clear representing what we call "center of truth" and "true scene."
A role-played "voice of truth" figure externalizes and illustrates the clients' spoken thoughts and beliefs by stating, in the imperative, the old "truths" the client lives by. If the client says, "I have to take care of myself because there is no one in the world who will do that for me," The "voice of truth" can be instructed to repeat that phrase, word for word except for changing the pronouns: "You have to take care of yourself because there is no one in the world who will do that for you."
A role-played "witness figure" validates the clients' emotional expressions, naming each emotion (and the context of the emotion) in a compassionate, accepting manner; ("I see how bitter you feel as you hear that statement.").
These techniques provide clients with an interior-exterior perspective and a comprehensive view and of the architecture and content of their cognitive and emotional processes while they are vividly connected to their feelings, sensations and impulses. This in itself is quite empowering, but we do not stop here.
Such clear internal and external views of consciousness spur the client's associations and induce the recollection of past, life-shaping, events that have a similar configuration and emotional effect. Memories evoked by the "true scene" are powerful and experienced almost as if they were happening in the present. The client is thus in the dual position of "reliving" a vivid memory while at the same time observing him/her self from a therapeutic perspective.
If the client recalls the painful memory of the rejection and disappearance of his/her father while a child, the client can ask a group member to role-play the "rejecting and disappearing" aspect of his/her father. The client then places this figure in the room and establishes the "historical scene".
Although absorbed with this externally represented memory, the client is nonetheless able to use his/her new-found awareness of emotions, body sensations, and impulses as the motive force to express what is coming up from moment to moment. "Accommodation," the role-playing procedure that provides the wished-for interaction that matches each action, not only allows full expression of each emotion but provides maximum relief and satisfaction. Clients can thus air and safely integrate feelings that have been long buried and deeply repressed.
However, emotional expression alone is not enough for long lasting change. New learning requires new experience. What has happened, as well as what has not happened shapes our character and personality during our formative years. We cannot undo the past, but clients in a PBSP structure experience what it might have been like to have had a non-rejecting, non-disappearing father. While clients are in the 'as if real' situation, vividly remembering past events, interactions with symbolic "ideal parents" provide their remembered child selves with experiences that would have had a positive influence on their attitudes towards themselves and the world.
For instance, a role-playing, "ideal father" might be asked to say, "Had I been back there then, I would not have rejected you or disappeared. I would have fathered you while you were growing up." The client hears this while deeply connected with memories of past feeling states that are now coupled to the immediate experience of body and eye contact with the ideal figure. This is a complex orchestration that includes memories of the literal past, linked to the present symbolic scene which is presented as part of a hypothetical past. All this, coupled with emotionally laden tactile, auditory, and visual input, gives the client the stuff out of which he/she can construct new positive images of him/her self and the world These experiences and images enter the psyche at a core level and produce psychological/neurological reorganization.
The psychological re-mapping fostered by the creation of a hypothetical past acts as an antidote to the negative conditioning of actual past events. These new experiences give clients a positive lens through which to see and experience the world. They can now choose not to succumb, as they habitually had in the past when difficulties arose, to states of chaos, depression and anxiety. Thus clients can function more productively in present day, reality settings.
Therapists like to work with PBSP principles and processes. Because of its optimistic and hopeful world-view and philosophy and because of its emphasis on symbolic experiential satisfaction in the structures, clients come away from the work feeling hope and optimism. This therapeutic climate is encouraging to work within and therapists using PBSP report gaining more satisfaction and pleasure when using PBSP than when following with other therapeutic orientations.
WHO CAN USE IT?
Therapists use PBSP in groups and on a one to one basis, with a wide variety of populations. It is successful in psychiatric settings, drug and alcohol treatment centers, pain clinics, and obesity treatment programs. It is effective with victims of abuse, incest victims, and adolescents in trouble with their emotions, the law and drugs. It has significant value in application to marriage and family problems and is now being used to alleviate executive stress and to deal with other organizational problems.
PBSP is so basic and founded on such clear and understandable formulations that therapists with many varieties of professional training and experience find it adaptable to their own frames of reference.
It is considered a psychoanalytic process, a behavior modification process, a re-parenting process, a gestalt process, a body therapy process, a family therapy process (without the family), and more. While it is not a fusion and amalgam of all the above, it does contain so much that is fundamental to all forms of psychotherapy that it relates easily to all major techniques used to treat emotional and mental problems. It has even been argued that all therapists, whatever their orientation, can benefit by receiving some training in PBSP
To Make Further Contact with Pesso Boyden System Psychomotor
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I will now describe a structure from a recent professional workshop with psychotherapists. There was some question as to who would have the next structure when one of the women in the group raised her hand to say that she wished a turn. I looked about and saw that no one else had raised their hand and I said to her that it was her turn then. She turned red, looked a bit anxious and smiled with a look of surprise and dismay, saying, "I didn't expect to have a turn or that I would be the one to have a turn. I was sure some one else would get it."
Moving directly toward creating the true scene, I said to her, "If there was a witness here now, he or she would say, 'I see how shocked, surprised and unsettled you are that you were the one to get the turn.'"
"Yes", she said. "Things aren't supposed to come so easy."
"That would be the voice of your truth saying that" I said. "It would say, 'Things don't come so easy.'"
"Yes." she said in agreement. "You have to work for what you get in this world."
At my suggestion she enrolled both the witness and the voice of her truth and the scene was created. The witness saw how surprised she was, and she flushed again remembering that feeling.
She said, "I really didn't expect that I would get it."
"That implied a voice of negative prediction," I reminded her, "that would say, 'you won't get what you want.'"
"That's true," she said. "My sister always got there first. My mother preferred her and she was always the favorite."
She said she was an adopted child and her eyes filled with tears when she said that she taken from her biological mother on the day she was born and given to her adoptive mother.
I asked her if she wanted to enroll her adoptive mother in the structure. and she asked one of the group members to do so and placed further her away in the room.
"My mother never really wanted me or liked me," she said.
The adoptive mother was instructed to say that.
Hearing that. she looked forlorn and slumped as she sat on the corduroy covered foam couch. I suggested that the witness could see how forlorn or dejected she felt when she remembered that her mother never really wanted or liked you. She agreed.
"How does that feel in your body to hear that?" I asked.
"It hurts in my chest," she said.
I instructed her to contract the muscles around the feeling and see what movement, sounds or emotions arose from there. She made a sound that gave me the impression of a wounded animal, or a very small injured child calling weakly and hopelessly for help.
"How does it sound to you, hearing that?" I asked.
"I heard it, but it didn't seem like it was coming from me," she said. "It didn't feel like it came from my body."
I suggested to her that the feeling was split away from her or she was split from her feelings and that this might be the time to enroll a voice of dissociation, which would say, "Don't feel what is happening to you."
"Yes," she said, "I often dissociate. It is an old habit and problem of mine."
I suggested to her that it was normal for people to dissociate when encountering too powerful or uncomfortable feelings.
Then she looked at the negative mother and said she was angry, at her for rejecting her and favoring her sister. She spoke forcefully and made gestures emphasizing her aggressive feelings. I asked her if she wanted here negative mother to act as if the anger had struck her. She said yes and the accommodator did so. She was pleased to see the effect of her anger on her and then directed the accommodator to fall as she aimed her blows in her direction. The accommodator fell to the ground.
Seeing that, the client suddenly began to cry. "I feel so alone she said. Now I have nobody."
The witness said that she could see how sad she was now that she had nobody. She wrapped her arms around her body and tightly gripped her own shoulder and leg, her fingers digging into her flesh.
I asked her if she wanted to have someone other than herself that she could hold onto like that, as it appeared she was doing so in the absence of having someone to hang onto.
She chose a group member to enroll as a figure she could hold onto. In my mind I was associating that clutching, finger penetrating, gesture with my understanding of the child wish to be embedded in the flesh of another and was doing it to herself in the absence of having someone to do it with, but at the moment I did not say that to her.
She held on to that figure and began to smile and look happy. The witness duly noted that. Then she began to have motion in her pelvis and I asked her to find a way to move that part of her body in some way that would produce a satisfying interaction with the role figure. She maneuvered her body and the accommodator's body in an interesting fashion. For a moment it even looked like she was about to separate the legs of the accommodator as if to climb into her. Then she began to rock together with the role player and a look of pleasure and delight came over her face.
"It is as if we are on a boat together and sailing. It feels wonderful." She continued rocking for some time with a look on her face that was near ecstatic. I saw a combination of infantile feelings and sensual feelings showing on her body. But mostly I imagined that the water metaphor had to do with the wish to be rocked and safely intimate with a female figure.
All at once she stopped and said, "It can't last. Nothing good lasts." She separated from that figure and lay crumpled on the couch. The voice of negative prediction was instructed to say. "Nothing good lasts."
She agreed with that statement and her body got more and more shrunken. She said, "I feel like I want to shrink until I disappear." I said let yourself follow that feeling and give movement to it. She wound up in a little ball.
Once again she said, "I feel a tension in my throat."
"Tighten the muscles around that tension and see what comes of It," I said. "Make the sounds that would seem to come from there." Once more she made those helpless sounds, this time they escalated until she began to cry with bitter desperation.
"Do you want a contact figure to hold you while you cry?" I asked, softly. This is an intervention I often make when there is deep grief that seems unbounded and without sufficient physical support to handle it.
She said, "No, I have to be alone. I have to take care of myself."
This attitude was underlined by the voice of her truth.
She stretched out on the couch. She was limp and looked helplessly upwards as if to an absent god. Once again her pelvic movements began and she reached up helplessly.
I said, "What do you need that would bring some satisfying interaction?" She said, "There is nothing and no one that I can turn to."
When people make that kind of statement I assume that somewhere they have projected satisfaction and I asked her if she had such thoughts. After some time, she said that in the afterlife she knew she would be happy, but not in this one.
I said, "Create a place in the room where that afterlife condition would be and then place someone there to be the voice or the spokes-person of that place." She chose another woman in the group to enroll as that figure.
She said that there she knew would find peace. The accommodator was instructed to say, "Here you can find peace."
On hearing that she began to cry, saying, "There I wouldn't have to do anything to get things, I would just have to be myself." The role player said back to her, "Here you wouldn't have to do anything to get things, you would just have to be yourself."
I asked her if she wanted to be in contact with that figure. She said yes, but looked puzzled. She said, "Does this mean that I am suicidal or that I want to be dead?"
I reassured her saying that she could be in contact with that figure, knowing that she had projected peace and relief there, and that it would be a symbolic process and not an expression of a wish for literal death.
She asked the role player to sit on the couch and then moved her and herself until she found a way to climb into her lap pulling the arms of the accommodator around her.
Being held in that position brought up a great well of sadness, longing and relief and she began to cry deeply in a way that was very moving to the group as several members began to weep.
While sobbing, she began to clutch desperately at the figure and at an appropriate moment I suggested that perhaps the wish that had shown up before was again being expressed and that she should try to squeeze that figure as tightly as she wished. She said she was afraid to do that thinking it would hurt the role-player. It was not that she wished to hurt her but she felt the wish to clutch was so great she was certain it would be too much to bear.
The voice of her truth could then say, "Your need to clutch someone so tightly is too much for anyone to bear."
She cried desperately at that and buried her head in the shoulder of the accommodator.
I asked her if she wanted that figure to say that she could bear how much she was clutching her. On hearing that she dared to hold her tighter and her crying this time included the relief that bespoke the possibility of having the new license.
Here, I thought it useful to point out to her that this was no longer merely a figure from the next life but was functioning more in the style of an ideal mother. I suggested that we change the enrollment of that figure into an ideal mother category, for that was what was wished for in the first place but she had not expected to be experienced until the next life.
She agreed and then began to feel the beginning of pleasure and relief that had surfaced with the earlier figure of contact, but this time she was not holding her as if to ride on the waves but clearly as a little child holds onto a mother.
After some time she said, "This won't last either."
Here was the latest expression of the pattern established early in her history was that all good things came swiftly to an end. The voice of negative prediction said, "This won't last either.", and she agreed with it.
Now I thought would be the appropriate time to provide an antidote, I felt sure that her life had been one long continuous series of losses after another. The root of which was the first loss of being too early plucked from her biological mother.
Therefore I suggested that she construct this figure as an ideal biological mother who would not have given her up for adoption as her original mother had, but would have raised her herself.
The remembrance of the pleasure of a few moments before, coupled with the possibility that it could last with this ideal mother who would never have given her up, lit up her face. Clearly, this new thought presented hope and she began to return to the peace and satisfaction she had felt when she first contacted that figure as someone representing the next world.
To cement the connection between the two images, I asked her if she would like to hear her ideal mother say, "I would make you feel as wonderful as you expected to feel in the next world." She agreed and thus linked the two experiences.
Now she settled into the embrace of the mother, her breathing becoming deeper and slower and her body visibly relaxed.
She said, "I could stay here forever."
I asked her if she wanted to hear form her ideal mother that she could stay there forever, meaning that on the feeling level that she need never leave this state of bliss with the mother.
The ideal mother said, "You can stay here forever."
I asked her to make an image of herself at that age, with all the blissful feelings that she was having included in it. And then to make another image of the ideal mother providing those feelings around her. That way, she could internalize that composite image within herself so that when the structure was over it was not as if the ideal mother was leaving. Her adult mind could note that the structure had come to an end.
She stayed some time in the arms of the ideal mother, consciously establishing and recording the feeling of acceptance and bliss. She wanted one more things, she said. She wanted to hear the ideal mother say that she didn't have to do anything special to have attention or have her needs met but that she would be there for her just as she was. The ideal mother said that and she smiled with her eyes closed nodded her head as if saying yes as she included that feeling in the image she created. After some moments she opened her eyes, having the look that people have when they are at the end of the structure. I asked her if she had the images firmly in place. She said yes, and I asked her if she was ready to de-role the figures. She said she was. She first de-rolled all the negative figures and ended with the derolling of the ideal mother.
The accommodators returned to their places and thus the structure came to an end.
Afterward the client spoke to me and told me how much she appreciated the work. Although it was only one structure, it did give her new perspective and the healing reconditioning nature of the antidote gave her some of the means as well as the hope that she could effect positive changes.
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