Item 1: Efficacy and Stability of Bioenergetic Therapies: a Retrospective Investigation by Christa Ventling and Urs Gerhard
The efficacy and stability of bioenergetic therapies carried out in s private practice setting was investigated retrospectively. A specially designed questionnaire was sent to 290 patients in Switzerland who had completed a bioenergetic therapy after at least 20 sessions between 1991 and 1996. 142 replies were received (=49% return). Of each patient the ICD-10 diagnosis (the main character structure according to Lowen), age, sex, and total number of therapy sessions were known.
58% belonged to the F4 (neurotic and psychosomatic disorders), 13.5% to the F6 (personality disorders) and 12.3% to the F3 (affective disorders) group, with the remaining 16% distributed amongst the other F categories. There were twice asmany women in this study as men: their average age was 41.6 years and the mean number of sessions was 91 hours. At the time of the questionnaire (summer 1997) all therapies had been terminated for at least 6 months and at the most 6 years earlier.
The questionnaire contained questions relating to the psychic and physical condition, to interpersonal and psychosomatic problems, as well as to the effect of bodywork on physical consciousness, cognitive insights, and changes to the quality of life. For comparative reasons, three time points for questionning were chosen: before therapy, immediately after therapy, and at the time of questionning. Questionnaires were answered anonymously. The statistical analysis out of the 142 returned questionnaires shows that bioenergetic theapies produced significant positive changes in all areas questioned. With 3 out of 4 patients, the achieved therapeutic result remained stable upto the time of questionning, e.g. 0.5 to 6 years after the end of therapy, or improved further.
Contact: Dr. Christa Ventling, Holbeinstrasse 65, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland Tel: 0041 61 272 41 40 Fax: 0041 61 722 00 61
e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org - for a full text of the report in German, or for further details.
Abstract: We interviewed 17 body-psychotherapist of different schools what the term "energy" means to them. The reason to do this is the often unclear use of this word and also that we think it is a very important term for us. The results were rather difficult. There is no common concept of the term "energy". It is used to explain everything and nothing. Our suggestion is to reduce it to a 'smaller' term, in that it is useful for the practical work but not as a concept to explain to the world.
However there has been a complaint from some people about the scientific quality of this reseach, so we are not making it available through the EABP website. However, in the interests of fairness, for a transcript of this research paper in German, contact Jules Zwimpfer.
Abstract 3a: J. May produced a small pilot study in 1997. Three clients were recruited to participate in a time-limited research Radix group that met for six months. To provide a standardized procedure for research processes, this group followed the session plans provided by the Radix Institute Training Program closely. Clients were tested before and after the six-month group with the Quality of Life Inventory, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2, and the Symptom Checklist - 90 - R. Scores on the QOLI showed meaningful and significant increases in life satisfaction. Scores on the MMPI-2 showed a consistent decrease in personality symptoms that approached, but did not reach, statistical significance. Scores on the SCL-90-R were mixed. These findings were consistent with hypothesized results, and suggest that these instruments may be adequate measures of psychological change as a result of this type of therapy experience. The study was not published and is available from John May, Ph.D., Gateways: A Growing Place, 222 W. Argonne Dr., St. Louis, MO 63122, USA.
Abstract 3b: L. Glenn, A. Glenn, and V. Clark produced a study of Radix characterology in 1989. Ninety-five college students were photographed from each of 4 angles. These photos were submitted to 23 Radix practitioners, who diagnosed the subjects as one of the three main Radix characterological types: fear structure, anger structure, or pain structure. The authors computed levels of agreement across raters and compared Radix character structure to variables from the Meyers-Briggs Type Inventory. Results were that 51% of the subjects could be diagnosed as a particular structure with a minimum of 55% agreement of the raters. These results support a conclusion of low to moderate, but statistically significant, reliability in the ability of Radix practitioners to diagnose character structure from photographs. Regarding the Meyers-Briggs, the results supported complex low to moderate relationships between Radix character structure and some variables from the Meyers-Briggs. This report was published as "Personality and body structures: An investigation of emotional invariance and functional unity in Radix Education." Somatics, Vol. 7, (2), 50-61.
Abstract 3c: K. Swafford and J. May studied the effects of an intensive Radix workshop on participants' experience of fear and anger. The workshop consisted of the Summer, 1999, Radix Institute Training Workshop, a six-day intensive experience. Fear and anger were measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Ten subjects completed the trait portion of the inventories at the beginning and end of the study. They completed the state portion for five days prior to the workshop, each day during the six days of the workshop, and for five days following the workshop. Average pretest, workshop, and posttest scores were compared. And all state scores were graphed and visually analyzed. Results indicated that the workshop had no effect on subjects experience of either fear or anger. Additionally, it was discovered that the State-Trait Anger Inventory may not be an appropriate measure for this type of study due to floor effects on some of the subscales with virtually all of the subjects. The report of this study has been accepted for publication in the 2000 edition of the Radix Journal.
For the last about 10 years, IAB and GTK stimulate, practically support and sometimes finance scientific research.
1) Marie-Luise Langenbach: Tiefenpsychologische Körpertherapie: "Subjektive Veränderungen im psychischen und körperlichen Erleben von Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmern während und nach einer dreijährigen Therapiegruppe". ( "Subjective changes of psychological and bodily phenomena in the experience of clients during and after their participation of a therapy-group") ( finished 1998)
This is a very extensive empirical research/ outcome study, written as a doctoral thesis at the University of Hamburg. 6 therapy-groups of each about 2O participants have been researched throughout the 3 years of their running. With 2 groups there is even a follow-up research-process one year later. There is a control-group of 30 people.
2) Marei Sinn: "Psychisches und körperliches Erleben und seine Veränderungen während der Teilnahme an einer dreijährigen Gruppe in Tiefenpsychologischer Körpertherapie". ("Subjective psychological and bodily changes in a client during her participation of a three-year- therapy group in Tiefenpsychologischer Körpertherapie"). Thesis at the University Hamburg, finished 1997
This a case-study, in which data were used from the Langenbach-study and from regular interviews with a client by the researcher.
3) Michael Stencz: "Evaluation in der körperorientierten Psychotherapie, eine methodenkritische Einzelfallstudie." ("Evaluation in body-oriented Psychotherapy, a case-study and critical review of methodology".). Thesis at the University of Saarbrücken. finished 1997
4) Birgit Stockheimer: "Erlebte Entwicklungsprozesse von Klientinnen und Klienten mit Multipler Sklerose in körperpsychotherapeutischer Behandlung." ("Subjective processes of development of clients with Multiple Sclerosis in body-psychotherapeutic treatment"). This doctoral thesis at the University of Hamburg is still in the proces of data collection. 20 MS-patients in treatment with a Tiefenpsychologischer Körpertherapeut are researched qualitatively and quantitatively over a period of 2 years.
5) EVA 2000 European-wide outcome study about the effectivity of bodypsychotherapy (short-term and long-term) with about 2000 clients. It is started by the Association Internationale de Somatotherapie (AIS) and promoted by Dr. Richard Meyer, Dr. Rüdiger Höll and Dr. Hans Krens. It is supervised by Prof. Dr. Margraf (University of Dresden) and will start in 1999. The GTK is taking part in this outcome-study.
6) BODY PICTURE New scientific research programm of the ISP. Two parallel Longtime Therapy Groups were photographed and draw body pictures in four positions and answered two questionaires, one of them SASB. Still to be evaluated, thesis will be promoted by GFTK (Research Promoting Association of the GTK ).